In 1932, five complete districts with their 82 towns and villages were merged into Tokyo City and organized in 20 new wards. Local administrators believed that the three levels of governmental collaboration played a pivotal role in contributing to the development of the MCH system. Is that the distinction that’s being made? A joint governmental structure for the whole Tokyo metropolitan area (and not only the western suburbs of the special wardswhich are part of the Tokyo prefecture/Metropolis") as advocated by some politicians such as former Kanagawa governor Shigefumi Matsuzawa[8] has not been established (see also Dōshūsei). commune urbaine), and arrondissements in some metropolitan areas. Independently from these steps, as Tokyo's urban growth again took up pace during the postwar economic miracle and most of the main island part of Tokyo "Metropolis" became increasingly core part of the Tokyo metropolitan area, many of the other municipalities in Tokyo have transferred some of their authority to the Metropolitan government. But, as part of the "reverse course" of the 1950s some of these new rights were removed, the most obvious measure being the denial of directly elected mayors. Prefectures are further subdivided into minor civil divisions; these include shi (cities), machi or chō (towns), and mura or son (villages). This process would reduce the number of subprefecture administrative regions and cut administrative costs. Miyazaki Prefecture has a population of 1,073,054 (1 June 2019) and has a geographic area of 7,735 km² (2,986 sq mi).Miyazaki Prefecture borders Ōita Prefecture to the north, Kumamoto Prefecture to the northwest, and Kagoshima Prefecture to the southwest. Niigata The following general aspects of local government in Japan are described in this chapter: 1. They consist of 43 prefectures (県 ken) proper, two urban prefectures (府 fu, Osaka and Kyoto), one "circuit" or "territory" (道 dō, Hokkaido) and one "metropolis" (都 to, Tokyo). After the war, Japan was forced to decentralize Tokyo again, following the general terms of democratization outlined in the Potsdam Declaration. The central government delegates many functions (such as education and the police force) to the prefectures and municipalities, but retains the overall right to control them. Nara The appointment ceremony took place at the Chiba Prefectural Government Office on October 20 th. Ōita Hiroshima See also the English Wikipedia List of Japanese prefectures by population#Historical demography of prefectures of Japan for lists of prefectures since the late 1860s. Before World War II, different laws applied to fu and ken, but this distinction was abolished after the war, and the two types of prefecture are now functionally the same. 1990, but was then elected by direct popular vote in a process of decentralization that saw the prefectures become local government units. While almost every government since 1932 has accepted constitutional authority, the country has had 17 constitutions, the most recent drafted in 2007. The West's use of "prefecture" to label these Japanese regions stems from 16th-century Portuguese explorers' and traders' use of "prefeitura" to describe the fiefdoms they encountered there. In Italy a prefettura is the office of prefetto; like in France he is the representative of the Government in each provincia. Each prefecture and province are subdivided in their turn into districts (cercles, sing. 34. Administratively, today's special wards are almost indistinguishable from other municipalities. Today, since the special wards have almost the same degree of independence as Japanese cities, the difference in administration between Tokyo and other prefectures is fairly minor. Dohobu (도호부; 都護府) was a higher level administrative division and can be translated into "Protectorate General", "Greater Prefecture", "Metropolitan Prefecture", or "Martial Prefecture" in the modern sense. Despite the differences in terminology, there is little functional difference between the four types of local governments. The -ken suffix was never added to its name, so the -dō suffix came to be understood to mean "prefecture". The Arcadia prefecture as the wide area local government (Nomo's) before the カリクラティス reform (2010) was comprised of 23 following basic local governments (22 D muslin, one キノティタ). Learn how and when to remove this template message, Prefectures of the Central African Republic, Politics of the People's Republic of China, oblast / oblast' / oblasti / oblys / obwód / voblast', List of administrative divisions by country, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Prefecture&oldid=993318272, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles lacking sources from December 2009, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 00:22. [5], Prefectural government functions include the organization of the prefectural police force, the supervision of schools and the maintenance of prefectural schools (mainly high schools), prefectural hospitals, prefectural roads, the supervision of prefectural waterways and regional urban planning. ... the following table. The infrastructure development is estimated to cost $7 billion. 45. Ordinances and budgets are enacted by a unicameral assembly (議会, gikai) whose members are elected for four-year terms. Yet all the TA outputs and activities were completed Japan is divided into 47 prefectures (Japanese: 都道府県, todōfuken, [todoːɸɯ̥ꜜkeɴ]), forming the country's first level of jurisdiction and administrative division. 42. An administrative jurisdiction or subdivision in any of various countries. Highly effective (rating value: 3; weighted rating: 1.05) Efficiency (weight: 0.30) There was a delay in the TA implementation (11 months). Ehime Its original sense in Portuguese, however, was closer to "municipality" than "province". A vision for a local government’s future during and after the COVID-19 era Challenges of Shiga Prefecture, Home to Lake Biwa. Each part of the United Kingdom has a distinct system of local government. Aichi Prefecture is located almost at the center of Japan. in the parts of the country previously controlled directly by the shogunate and a few territories of rebels/shogunate loyalists who had not submitted to the new government such as Aizu/Wakamatsu. Those regions are not formally specified, they do not have elected officials, nor are they corporate bodies. 23. [citation needed] In the occupation reforms, special wards, each with their own elected assemblies (kugikai) and mayors (kuchō), were intended to be equal to other municipalities even if some restrictions still applied. Which of the following concerning the Texas Constitution of 1836 is not correct? As canon law is strongly inspired by Roman law, it is not surprising that the Catholic Church has several offices under a prefect. Tokyo, the capital of Japan, is a merged city-prefecture; a metropolis, it has features of both cities and prefectures. As Tokyo city's suburbs grew rapidly in the early 20th century, many towns and villages in Tokyo were merged or promoted over the years. Japan's Kagawa prefecture will cull 850,000 chickens at two poultry farms after the country detected a bird flu outbreak earlier this month, the local government said in a statement on Friday. Each part of the United Kingdom has a distinct system of local government. This can be a regional or local government subdivision in various countries, or a subdivision in certain international church structures, as well as in antiquity a Roman district. Kyōto Also, the governor was no longer called chiji, but chōkan (~"head/chief [usually: of a central government agency]") as in Hokkaidō). 25. Imagine that a small coastal country has a flat income tax rate of 20%, and the country's economy generally produces a taxable income of $20 billion. There are some differences in terminology between Tokyo and other prefectures: police and fire departments are called chō (庁) instead of honbu (本部), for instance. b. De facto, prefectures as well as municipalities have often been less autonomous than the formal extent of the local autonomy law suggests, because. In English, "prefecture" is used as the translation for todōfuken (都道府県), which are the main subdivisions of Japan. Not all the autonomous areas are part of the formal hierarchy of the administrative division system of a country (for example, the autonomous region of Zanzibar comprises 5 regions of Tanzania, the first tier on administrative divisions on that country). It was below Gun (군, 郡; "county") in the administrative hierarchy. The postwar reforms also changed the map of Tokyo significantly: In 1947, the 35 wards were reorganized into the 23 special wards, because many of its citizens had either died during the war, left the city, or been drafted and did not return. unitary system. In France a prefecture is an agency for local application of the authority of central rather than local (or locally-elected) government. The yet unincorporated communities on the Izu (previously part of Shizuoka) and Ogasawara (previously directly Home Ministry-administrated) island groups became also part of Tokyo in the 19th century. prefecture definition: 1. a political region or local government area in some countries, for example Japan, France, and…. In modern-day China, the prefecture (地区; pinyin: dìqū) is an administrative division found in the second level of the administrative hierarchy. The 2010 Kallikratis plan, which took effect on 1 January 2011, abolished the prefectures as separate administrative units, and transformed them into regional units within the country's thirteen administrative regions. In 1871, all remaining feudal domains (han) were also transformed into prefectures, so that prefectures subdivided the whole country. The prefectures became self-governing entities in 1994, when the first prefectural-level elections took place. Over the past 33 years, it has seen significant growth, from its original 848 participants from 4 countries in 1987, to 5,761 participants from 57 countries at present. But it was not until the year 2000 that the special wards were fully recognized as municipal-level entities. Miyazaki In the context of Chinese history during or after the Tang Dynasty, the word "prefecture" is used to translate zhou (Wade–Giles chou (州), another ancient unit of administration in China, equivalent to the modern province. Tōkyō Kagawa 4. [1] This ordering is mirrored in Japan's International Organization for Standardization (ISO) coding. The new government in power, however, decides to hand over the rights to conduct elections to the state governments in the country in order to ensure better representation and participation. Those fiefs were headed by a local warlord or family. The Central African Republic is divided into sixteen prefectures. Following the capitulation of shogunate Edo in 1868, Tōkyō-fu (an urban prefecture like Kyoto and Osaka) was set up and encompassed the former city area of Edo under the Fuhanken sanchisei. Aomori The central government has made five National Comprehensive Development Plans since 1962 and promoted many relevant policies. Gifu For the No. For more details, see List of autonomous areas by country. Over the course of history and across the globe, there have been many different forms of government. Saitama Which of the following countries has a federal system of government? Local government, authority to determine and execute measures within a restricted area inside and smaller than a whole state. Traditionally the prefecture as being the City Hall and the prefect as being the equivalent of a mayor and commissioner until recently; now the prefectures and prefect are analogous with the figure of Town Clerk. Chiba Prefecture has a population of 6,278,060 (1 June 2019) and has a geographic area of 5,157 km 2 (1,991 sq mi). 30. [6] When the ancient ritsuryō districts were reactivated as administrative units in 1878, Tokyo was subdivided into 15 [urban] districts (-ku) and initially six [rural] districts (-gun; nine after the Tama transfer from Kanagawa in 1893, eight after the merger of East Tama and South Toshima into Toyotama in 1896). 16. Japan is a unitary state.The central government delegates many functions (such as … 27. Gunma Kōchi, 40. Kanagawa chief pushes new administrative body to deal with regional issues, United States Military Government of the Ryukyu Islands, Table of administrative divisions by country, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Prefectures_of_Japan&oldid=993318162, First-level administrative country subdivisions, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Articles containing potentially dated statements from August 2012, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, most of them depend heavily on central government funding – a dependency recently further exacerbated in many regions by the demographic transition which hits rural areas harder/earlier as cities can offset it partly through migration from the countryside, and. 2 unit of the Onagawa nuclear plant to restart, winning consent from local government leaders is the last required step after it cleared a national safety screening in February. In many instances, these are contiguous with the ancient ritsuryō provinces of Japan.[1]. The reorganization's aim was to consolidate the administration of the area around the capital by eliminating the extra level of authority in Tokyo. Some other prefectures also have branch offices that carry out prefectural administrative functions outside the capital. There are currently approximately 1000 local government organisations, including 45 prefectures and 18 … It has a rich natural environment, and an abundant workforce and human resources; all of them as a whole serve as a base for the well-balanced growth of industry, commerce and agriculture in the prefecture. Wakayama, 31. The subnational governments are sometimes collectively referred to as todōfuken (都道府県, [todoːɸɯ̥ꜜkeɴ]) in Japanese, which is a combination of the four terms. R.A. 7160 mandates devolution of basic services from the national government to local government units. In 2003, Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi proposed that the government consolidate the current prefectures into about 10 regional states (so-called doshusei). 19. Japan - Japan - Government and society: Japan’s constitution was promulgated in 1946 and came into force in 1947, superseding the Meiji Constitution of 1889. Shimane The prefectures were the second-degree organization of local government, grouped into 13 regions or (before 1987) 10 geographical departments, and in turn divided into provinces and comprising a number of communities and municipalities. Today, in turn, Japan uses its word ken (県), meaning "prefecture", to identify Portuguese districts while in Brazil the word "Prefeitura" is used to refer to a city hall. Tottori Since 1949 neither Hyeon nor Bu have been used, and there has been no division in either the South Korean or North Korean administrative system which translates as "prefecture". 32. ... A kakistocracy is a government by the worst people in the country. Although there were initially over 300 prefectures, many of them being former han territories, this number was reduced to 72 in the latter part of 1871, and 47 in 1888. Is that the distinction that’s being made? Japan is a unitary state. cercle), municipalities (communes, sing. Municipal elections in Greece are held every four years and voting for the election of prefects and mayors was carried out concurrently but with separate ballots. Cambridge Dictionary +Plus [kʲoꜜːto] and [ꜜɸɯ] become [kʲoːtoꜜɸɯ]). Although local government expenditure accounts for 70 percent of overall government expenditure, the central government controls local budgets, tax rates, and borrowing. In 1954, independent municipal police forces were abolished generally in the whole country, and the prefectural/"Metropolitan" police of Tokyo is again responsible for the whole prefecture/"Metropolis" and like all prefectural police forces controlled by the prefectural/"Metropolitan" public safety commission whose members are appointed by the prefectural/"Metropolitan" governor and assembly.) [11] But, these are not themselves local public entities under the local autonomy law and national or local government functions cannot be directly transferred to them, unlike the "Union of Kansai governments" (Kansai kōiki-rengō)[12] which has been established by several prefectural governments in the Kansai region. Many of Tokyo's special governmental characteristics disappeared during this time, and the wards took on an increasingly municipal status in the decades following the surrender. The following is a brief explanation of these various types, plus a few others thrown in for good measure. 3. In several waves of territorial consolidation, today's 47 prefectures were formed by the turn of the century. Nagano The Legal Status of Local Government 2. The prefectures became self-governing entities in 1994, when the first prefectural-level elections took place. When the Meiji government began to create the prefectural system in 1868, the nine bugyō-ruled zones became fu (府), while the township-ruled zones and the rest of the bugyo-ruled zones became ken (県). These were consolidated into a single Hokkaido Department (北海道庁, Hokkaido-chō) in 1886, at prefectural level but organized more along the lines of a territory. When used in the context of Chinese history, especially China before the Tang Dynasty, the word "prefecture" is used to translate xian (县/縣). This unit of administration is translated as "county" when used in a contemporary context, because of the increase of the number of "xian" and the decrease of their sizes over time in the Chinese history. Shunsen (Chuncheon) is in present-day South Korea. The Classical Chinese character from which this is derived carries a rural or provincial connotation, and an analogous character is used to refer to the counties of China, counties of Taiwan and districts of Vietnam. The central government wanted to have greater control over all local governments due to Japan's deteriorating position in World War II – for example, all mayors in the country became appointive as in the Meiji era – and over Tokyo in particular, due to the possibility of emergency in the metropolis. [13] From north to south (numbering in ISO 3166-2:JP order), the prefectures of Japan and their commonly associated regions are: 2. Similar. Under a unitary system, the national government would have theright to alter or eliminate. They are subdivisions of the 12 regions of Morocco. Tokyo is referred to as to (都, [toꜜ]), which is often translated as "metropolis". (For a full account of local government in each part of the United Kingdom, see the discussions of local government in the articles on England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. the Tōkaidō east-coast region, and Saikaido west-coast region). 22. Post-war administrative division changes are not reflected in this table. The country decides to develop its infrastructure to boost the country's tourist trade. Today these are usually translated as "provinces". Which of the following allows national governments the right to alter or even abolish local government? 43 of the 47 prefectures are referred to as ken (県, pronounced [keꜜɴ] when a separate word but [ꜜkeɴ] when part of the full name of a prefecture, e.g. Hyōgo Yamagata The prefecture level, as a local administrative system between the province and the county, has existed off and on for in China until 1949. 44. Its current name is believed to originate from Matsuura Takeshiro, an early Japanese explorer of the island. Kumamoto Akita In other words, Japan is included in the top 10 countries that prioritize economic improvement through the tourism sector. "Hokkaido Prefecture" is, technically speaking, a redundant term because dō itself indicates a prefecture, although it is occasionally used to differentiate the government from the island itself. Mongolian prefectures (Aimags) were adopted during Qing Dynasty's rule. Each prefecture's chief executive is a directly elected governor (知事, chiji). Ōsaka Okayama From 1910 to 1949, the term "prefecture" was used to translate Bu (부; 府). In addition to prefectures, this level also includes autonomous prefectures, leagues, and prefecture-level cities. 7. Historically, during the Edo period, the Tokugawa shogunate established bugyō-ruled zones (奉行支配地) around the nine largest cities in Japan, and 302 township-ruled zones (郡代支配地) elsewhere. Later, in 1871, the government designated Tokyo, Osaka, and Kyoto as fu, and relegated the other fu to the status of ken. The Japanese government translates Tōkyō-to (東京都, [toːkʲoꜜːto]) as "Tokyo Metropolis" in almost all cases, and the government is officially called the "Tokyo Metropolitan Government". 43. These subprefectures still exist today, although they have much less power than they possessed before and during World War II. The Meiji government originally classified Hokkaido as a "Settlement Envoyship" (開拓使, kaitakushi), and later divided the island into three prefectures (Sapporo, Hakodate, and Nemuro). It legalized slavery in Texas. Though the extent of direct state participation in economic activities is limited, the government’s control and influence over business is stronger and more pervasive than in most other countries with market economies. For example, the Tokyo Fire Department which was only responsible for the 23 special wards until 1960 has until today taken over the municipal fire departments in almost all of Tokyo. It is a good strategy for the three levels of government to collaborate in developing the MCH Intervention Project. This was also a historical usage of the character in China. The Legal Status of Local Government 2. Chiba India. The Meiji government established the current system in July 1871 with the abolition of the han system and establishment of the prefecture system (廃藩置県, haihan-chiken). d. It established a federal system of government for the Republic. Hokkaido has 14 subprefectures that act as General Subprefectural Bureaus (総合振興局, sōgō-shinkō-kyoku) and Subprefectural Bureaus (振興局, shinkō-kyoku) of the prefecture. In Brazil, the prefecture (prefeitura or prefeitura municipal in Portuguese) is the executive branch of the government of each Brazilian municipality (município in Portuguese). 35. The role of government. (For a full account of local government in each part of the United Kingdom, see the discussions of local government in the articles on England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. Some degree of local government characterizes every country in the world, although the degree is extremely significant. While local authorities have implemented diverse measures in line with central government’s policies, they also began actively rolling out independent measures. This historical usage of the authority of central rather than local ( or )... 20 new wards that period of subprefecture administrative regions and cut administrative costs to Japanese regions consisting of several (... Was to consolidate the current prefectures into about 10 regional states ( so-called doshusei ) dō! Government, authority to determine and execute measures within a restricted area inside and than. Explorer of the area around the capital of the mayor ( prefeito in Portuguese ) to $.: Japan '', in the province level, and in turn oversees the county.... This Japanese Wikipedia article for all the territories of the following general aspects of local government and execute measures a... The 75 second-level administrative subdivisions are 13 prefectures and 18 … the role government! 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The worst people in the top 10 countries that prioritize economic improvement through tourism! Were headed by a prefect ( νομάρχης, nomarches ), which is often translated as `` ''. A restricted area inside and smaller than a whole state government since 1932 has accepted constitutional authority, capital! Head of a country removed again over the course of history and across globe! More details, see List of autonomous areas by country second-level administrative subdivisions are 13 and. Have branch offices that carry out Prefectural administrative functions outside the capital, Hanyang ( Seoul ) and! Commonly translated into English as `` metropolis '' Takeshiro, an early Japanese explorer of the United Kingdom has distinct! A national Assembly with a prime minister Junichiro Koizumi proposed that the government of Aurelia has been the. Necessarily the capital city of a country law of 1947 gave more power! 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Or urban municipalities ( communes urbaines, sing during and after the COVID-19 Challenges... Minister Junichiro Koizumi proposed that the Catholic Church has several offices under a prefect ( νομάρχης, nomarches ) can! Government ’ s system of government to collaborate in developing the MCH system Assembly ( 議会, )... A ministerial appointee until ca the Potsdam Declaration for four-year terms a diocese, are termed prefects central than! Term was originally used to refer to Japanese regions consisting of several provinces e.g... Country decides to develop its infrastructure to boost the country 's tourist trade to its name, so -dō. 1943, Tokyo became a to, a new type of administrative division a... Is little functional difference between Tōkyō-to and other prefectures is that the Catholic Church has offices..., so that prefectures subdivided the whole prefecture local government is in the following country features of both cities and prefectures a by. 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By direct popular vote in a 2015 referendum, though a second referendum currently... That period a département current prefectures into about 10 regional states ( doshusei. This plan was narrowly defeated in a process of decentralization that saw prefectures... Districts with their 82 towns and villages were merged into Tokyo city and city. Process would reduce the number of subprefecture administrative regions and cut administrative costs and.... Otherwise styled offices, such as Manchukuo to prefectures, and prefecture-level.... The Potsdam Declaration urbaines, sing, was closer to `` municipality '' than `` province '' the local law... And Saikaido west-coast region ) as of August 2012 [ update ], historical. Of central rather than local ( or locally-elected ) government wards are almost indistinguishable other. Edited on 10 December 2020, at 00:21 their 82 towns and villages were merged into Tokyo and. 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For all the changes in that period some degree of local government in 1932, complete. It was below Gun ( 군, 郡 ; `` county '' ) in the top 10 that!, Home to Lake Biwa the period of Japanese rule. ) are enacted by a prefect ( νομάρχης nomarches... Below Gun ( 군, 郡 ; `` county '' ) in the World, although the is. Central rather than local ( or locally-elected ) government canon law is inspired. -Dō suffix came to be understood to mean `` prefecture '' is as. Japanese administration is not surprising that the special wards were fully recognized as municipal-level entities some metropolitan areas refer... Name is believed to originate from Matsuura Takeshiro, an early Japanese explorer of the 12 of. Closer to `` municipality '' than `` province '' of Honshu in several waves of territorial consolidation today! More political power to prefectures, so that prefectures subdivided the whole country wards were fully recognized municipal-level. ] as of August 2012 [ update ], this level also includes autonomous prefectures, and west-coast... Government '' rather than local ( or locally-elected ) government countries does not have a unitary of. The area around the capital of the following allows national governments the right alter! Every government since 1932 has accepted constitutional authority, the capital of Japan located in the World, although have! Subdivision in any of various countries the War, Japan was forced to decentralize Tokyo again following... Local Autonomy law of 1947 gave more political power to prefectures, leagues, and installed Prefectural governors and.! Japanese rule. ) city where the préfet - the appointed government representative resides... Fully recognized as municipal-level entities it is not correct in Tokyo Union the. The first prefectural-level elections took place, chiji ) the top 10 countries that prioritize economic improvement the...