5. Both Bentham and Mill believed this, they were both hedonists, believing that the most important thing in life is to be happy. Happiness is subjective. Immeasurable – You can’t assign a value to an amount of pleasure. Preference utilitarianism 1. It is an ethical theory that very closely stems from the idea of consequentialism . Although in a perfect world, we would want to see everyone have equal happiness and opportunities, there is enough of a difference within our various sub-groups that can make this impossible to achieve. Utility is defined to be something of intrinsic value. ( Log Out /  Flashcards of Key Terms. The goal of reducing personal harm while increasing happiness is something that every person pursues at some point in their life. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Describe the main strengths and weaknesses of Utilitarianism. 4.0 / 5 based on 3 ratings? Utilitarianism is a consequential moral theory, which means that the question of any action being morally right or wrong depends on the good or bad effects it produces. ( Log Out /  Advantages. », AS AQA Religious Studies RSS01 Ethics Predictions », AQA A2 Religious Studies Unit 3B & 4C RST3B/RST4C 19 & 27 Jun 2017 [Exam Discussion] », Desperately need help with RS AS revision », AQA Religious Studies: RSS01 Religion and Ethics », Any advice needed for AS/A2 Edexcel Religious Studies? Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. The rails lead directly into a cluster of five people who would all die if the train will go this direction. 19. It wasn’t the bad consequences that made it wrong, it was the act itself. The utilitarian approach to deciding what the right thing to do is to try and make the most amounts of people happy. For many people ‘happiness’ is an important part of decision making as it is their main aim in life. Using the hedonic calculus to calculate the greatest happiness for the greatest number is impractical. Secular – Utilitarianism doesn’t rely on specific beliefs about God. Other goods – ‘Happiness’ is not the only thing that is of intrinsic worth. • Compare Singer’s theory with Mill’s rule utilitarianism. Tyranny of the majority – For example, if most people feel strongly against homosexuality, this would justify laws against practicing homosexuality. We don’t want to live in misery all of the time, even if pessimism is the star of every thought that we have. Good clear points for the theory, so thanks! Get Revising is one of the trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No. Utilitarianism, religious studies, AQA, AS. Wrong – Utilitarianism is just wrong about ethics. 806 8067 22 Thus, utilitarianism works on a single moral principle- maximizing utility and thus ensuring greatest good for the greatest number. 3) WHAT IS THE BENTHAM & MILL DEBATE AND WHY DID IT BEGIN? Virtue Ethics - Bernard Mayo. Unpredictable – You can’t actually know what is going to happen in the future, so it is wrong to base our ethical choices on what may or may not come about in the future. Other goods – ‘Happiness’ is not the only thing that is of intrinsic worth. 11 Virtue Ethics Strengths and Weaknesses Virtue Ethics is one of the three approaches of normative ethics and is attributed to its founding fathers, Plato and Aristotle. Strengths and weaknesses of Rule Utilitarianism. It avoids the pitfalls of Bentham;s hedonic calculus, such … ( Log Out /  Utilitarianism was originally formulated by Jeremy Bentham in the 18th century, and fully developed by John Stewart Mill in the 19th. 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